|51% Attack||A condition in which more than half the computing power on a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single miner or group of miners. That amount of power theoretically makes them the authority on the network. This means that every client on the network believes the attacker’s hashed transaction block.|
|Address||A Dash address is used to Send / Receive a Payment on the Dash network. It contains a string of alphanumeric characters, but can also be represented as a scannable QR code. A Dash address is also the public key in the pair of keys used by Dash holders to digitally sign transactions (see Public key).|
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks.
Wikipedia definition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm
Bitcoin being the first cryptocurrency ever, it is considered as the reference. An altcoin is then an alternative coin. It means that any other cryptocurrency that is not Bitcoin is an altcoin.
Anti-Money Laundering techniques are used to stop people converting illegally obtained funds, to appear as though they have been earned legally. AML mechanisms can be legal or technical in nature. Regulators frequently apply AML techniques to Dash exchanges
An API expresses a software component in terms of its operations, inputs, outputs, and underlying types, defining functionalities that are independent of their respective implementations, which allows definitions and implementations to vary without compromising the interface. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer.
|ASIC||An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/, is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Dash Mining is an ASIC|
|ATM / BTM||A Dash ATM is a physical machine that allows a customer to buy Dash with cash. There are many manufacturers, some of which enable users to sell Dash for cash. They are also sometimes called 'BTMs' or 'Dash AVMS'. Dash is supported at Lamassu |
|Backlogged||Backlog generally refers to an accumulation over time of work waiting to be done or orders to be fulfilled.|
The process of making copies of a computer file to ensure its integrity in case of loss, theft, or damage. Dash has the unique feature of allowing users to make backup copies of their digital wallets. This protects against losing one's money in the event of a computer crashing or losing one’s mobile device. This would be the equivalent of being able to backup the cash in your wallet, so that if you lost it, you could restore the cash from a backup.
|Bitcoin2.0||This is a term explaining the next new level of Bitcoin projects who started as a fork of Bitcoin but extended their code into the next level of Blockchain Projects (Smart Contracts, Decentralised Voting,....)|
Is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of data records hardened against tampering and revision. It consists of data structure blocks—which hold exclusively data in initial blockchain implementations, and both data and programs in some of the more recent implementations—with each block holding batches of individual transactions and the results of any blockchain executables.Each block contains a timestamp and information linking it to a previous block.
Transactions on the Blockchain are collected in Blocks, Blocks record and confirm when and in what sequence transactions enter and are logged in the block chain. Blocks are created by users known as "miners" who use specialized software or equipment designed specifically to create blocks.
Budget System / DGBB
Dash as a project is self funded by Blockchain. DGBB receives 10% of the Blockchain payouts (45% Miners/ 45% Masternodes) which is then voted on (for what specific projects the funding will be spend) in a decentralised / anonymous way over the Masternode Network
|Cloud Wallet||Third parties that will store your Dashs on their servers for you, so that you can access your Dashs from any device connected to the internet. If their website is hacked or if their servers are damaged, you run the risk of losing your Dashs. Any online wallets should be secured with strong passphrases and 2FA. You cannot make backup copies of your online wallet, because you do not have access to the private keys.|
|Cold Storage||A method of generating and storing private keys completely offline. One could use a desktop or laptop computer disconnected from the internet, a dedicated hardware wallet, a USB stick, or a paper wallet. To learn more, visit our Cold Storage Guide Section.|
|Confirm(ed) Transaction||When a Dash transaction is made, a miner must verify that the transaction is valid. When the inputs and outputs are verified, the transaction is included in a block in the blockchain. The transaction can now be considered complete and irreversible. The confirmation number increases as more blocks are added to the blockchain.|
|Confirmation Number||The number of confirmations for a specific Dash transaction. Zero confirmations means that the transaction is unconfirmed. One confirmation means that the transaction is included in the latest block in the blockchain. Two confirmations means the transaction is included in two blocks, three confirmations for three blocks, and so on. The probability of a transaction being reversed (double spent) diminishes exponentially with every block and subsequent confirmation.|
|Confirmed Transactions||Transactions that are processed by Miners (8 Confirmations) or held via InstantSend are "confirmed on the blockchain"|
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.
Wikipedia definition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptocurrency
|Cryptography||Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.|
|Dark Gravity Wave / DGW||In concept, DGW is similar to Kimoto Gravity Well, adjusting the difficulty levels every block (instead of every 2016 blocks like Bitcoin) by using statistical data of the last blocks found. In this way block issuing times can remain consistent, despite high fluctuations in hashpower. However it doesn't suffer from the time-warp exploit. Dark Gravity Wave|
|Darkcoin||Dash launched as XCoin and then rebranded to Darkcoin|
A synonym to Digital Cash. An open source peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that solves many of Bitcoins initial problems. Dash features incl PrivateSend, InstantSend, Decentralized Governance System incl Voting (DGBB), 2nd Tier network (referred to as Masternodes)..... Full List Dash Features: https://dashpay.atlassian.net/wiki/x/JIAR
Wikipedia definition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dash_(cryptocurrency)
Dash clients are software programs used to interface with the Dash network. They store the private keys needed to conduct Dash transactions as well as a copy of the entire blockchain. A Dash client connects to the Dash network and becomes a node in the network. A node shares and propagates new transactions with the rest of the network creating a robust infrastructure
|Dash Evolution||This is the 3 Tier Network Dash is working on in the moment, this would be like a decentralised PayPal based on Cryptocurrency Dash. Evolution|
|DDoS||A distributed denial of service attack uses large numbers of computers under an attacker’s control to drain the resources of a central target. They often send small amounts of network traffic across the Internet to tie up computing and bandwidth resources at the target, which prevents it from providing services to legitimate users. Dash exchanges have sometimes been hit with DDoS attacks.|
Decentralized computing is the allocation of resources, both hardware and software, to each individual workstation, or office location. In contrast, centralized computing exists when the majority of functions are carried out, or obtained from a remote centralized location. Decentralized computing is a trend in modern-day business environments. This is the opposite of centralized computing, which was prevalent during the early days of computers. A decentralized computer system has many benefits over a conventional centralized network. Desktop computers have advanced so rapidly, that their potential performance far exceeds the requirements of most business applications. This results in most desktop computers remaining idle (in relation to their full potential). A decentralized system can use the potential of these systems to maximize efficiency. However, it is debatable whether these networks increase overall effectiveness.
|Desktop Wallet||To secure your Dash funds you needs a secure Wallet. There are many different Wallet Options (incl diff Functions) available , please check: QT Wallet / Electrum Wallet / Hardware Wallets|
This number determines how difficult it is to hash a new block. It is related to the maximum allowed number in a given numerical portion of a transaction block’s hash. The lower the number, the more difficult it is to produce a hash value that fits it. Difficulty varies based on the amount of computing power used by miners on the Dash network. If large numbers of miners leave a network, the difficulty would decrease. Thus far, however, Dash’s growing popularity has attracted more computing power to the network, meaning that the difficulty has increased.
A digital wallet is similar to a physical wallet except that it is used to hold digital currency. A Dash wallet holds your private keys, which allow you to spend your Dashs. You are also able to make backups of your wallet in order to ensure that you never lose access to your Dashs. Digital wallets can exist in many different forms and on many devices:
|DigitalSignature||A digital signature is a mathematical mechanism that allows someone to prove their identity or ownership of a digital asset. When your digital wallet signs a transaction with the appropriate private key, the whole network can see that the signature matches the Dashs being spent, without the need to reveal the private key to the network.|
The Electrum is a lightweight Wallet, you do NOT need to download or Sync the Blockchain (so the Wallet is lighter and faster) but misses features as IS, PS,...
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message content to the interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended communication information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, generating ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, large computational resources and skill are required. An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients, but not to unauthorized interceptors.
An escrow is:
|Evan Duffield||Founder and Head Developer of Dash. Inventor of X11, InstantSend(InstantX) and PrivateSend(DarkSend).|
Digital currency exchangers (DCEs) or bitcoin exchanges are businesses that allow customers to trade digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money, or different digital currencies. They can be market makers that typically take the bid/ask spreads as transaction commissions for their services or simply charge fees as a matching platform
|Exchange Rate||The current price of 1 Dash compared to the price of other currencies, like US$, Yen, Euro, Bitcoin,..... A good place to see the average exchange rate across all the Dash exchanges is CoinMarketCap . The value of Dashs at any given time depends upon the market’s demand for them relative to the available supply. For this reason, the value is always fluctuating, relative to the dollar. As a business, you can avoid the volatility risk by having a payment processor do an instant exchange at the time of each transaction.|
|Faucet||Faucets are a reward system, in the form of a website or app, that dispenses rewards in the form of a microdash or Duff, which is a hundredth of a millionth Dash, for visitors to claim in exchange for completing a captcha or task as described by the website.|
|Fiat Gateway||Is a term used to explain FIAT / Crypto access points (Exchanges)|
Example: How to convert from US$ to Dash
Fiat money has been defined variously as:
Financial technology, also known as FinTech, is an economic industry composed of companies that use technology to make financial services more efficient. Financial technology companies are generally startups trying to disintermediate incumbent financial systems and challenge traditional corporations that are less reliant on software
Is a term used to explain a Network update , the Network has to update to a new fork = the old network will fork / split into 2. Miners/Pools/ Wallets (Full Nodes) and Masternodes have to update to enforce a fork, after updating a certain percentage of the Network (51%) the new fork will have the consensus of the System. Dash additional is using Multi-Phased Fork (“Spork”) for more flexibility and safety.
|Full Nodes||a Full Node is considered a QT Wallet which has the full blockchain downloaded , or a Masternode (who has the full blockchain synced)|
|Fungible||every unit of the currency is worth the same as any other unit|
|Genesis Block||The very first block in the block chain.|
A graphics processing unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processing unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing, and their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose CPUs for algorithms where the processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be embedded on the motherboard or—in certain CPUs—on the CPU die.
These are special Security Wallets which keep your coins offline and double encrypted
|Hash||A mathematical process that takes a variable amount of data and produces a shorter, fixed-length output. A hashing function has two important characteristics. Firstly, it is mathematically difficult to work out what the original input was by looking at the output. Secondly, changing even the tiniest part of the input will produce an entirely different output.|
|Hashrate||The number of hashes that can be performed by a Dash Miner in a given period of time (usually a second).|
|InstantSend (transaction locking and masternode consensus). This technology will allow for cryptocurrencies such as Dash to compete with nearly instantaneous transaction systems such as credit cards for point-of-sale situations while not relying on a centralized authority. Widespread vendor acceptance of Dash and InstantSend could revolutionize cryptocurrency by shortening the delay in confirmation of transactions from as long as an hour (with Bitcoin) to as little as a few seconds.|
|Liquidity||The ability to buy and sell an asset easily, with pricing that stays roughly similar between trades. A suitably large community of buyers and sellers is important for liquidity. The result of an illiquid market is price volatility, and the inability to easily determine the value of an asset.|
Masternodes are computers that run a dash wallet and make decisions, such as locking transactions with InstantSend, coordinate mixing of coins for PrivateSend, and voting on budget funding Budget System ( Funding / Voting / DGBB). Masternodes are required to have 1000 Dash collateral, a dedicated IP address, and be able to run 24 hours a day without a more than a 1 hr connection loss. Masternodes get paid 45% of the block reward on every block, which is distributed to masternodes one at a time. Typically, around 2 dash is paid to each masternode every 7 days.
To form a distributed timestamp server as a peer-to-peer network, Dash uses a proof-of-work system. The work in this system is what is often referred to as Dash mining.
The mining process involves identifying a value that when hashed twice with X11, begins with a number of zero bits. While the average work required increases exponentially with the number of leading zero bits required, a hash can always be verified by executing a single round of double X11.
These are Wallets available on Mobile Phones (iPhone + Android)
Multi-signature addresses allow multiple parties to partially seed an address with a public key. When someone wants to spend some of the Dashs, they need some of these people to sign their transaction in addition to themselves. The needed number of signatures is agreed at the start when people create the address. Services using multi-signature addresses have a much greater resistance to theft. Read more about Multisig here.
A node is a basic unit used in computer science. Nodes are devices or data points on a larger network. Devices such as a personal computer, cell phone, or printer are nodes. When defining nodes on the internet, a node is anything that has an IP address. Nodes are individual parts of a larger data structure, such as linked lists and tree data structures. Nodes contain data and also may link to other nodes. Links between nodes are often implemented by pointers.
Also a Dash (or other cryptocurrency) QT Wallet which has the full blockchain downloaded is considered a Node , or a Masternode (who has the full blockchain synced) - Full Node
|OTC|| An exchange in which traders make deals with each other directly, rather than relying on a central exchange to mediate between them.|
Peer-to-peer. Decentralized interactions that happen between at least two parties in a highly interconnected network. An alternative system to a 'hub-and-spoke' arrangement, in which all participants in a transaction deal with each other through a single mediation point.
These are offline Wallets, printed on paper for safety
Privacy (here as in Financial Privacy) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The domain of privacy partially overlaps security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate use, as well as protection of information. Privacy may also take the form of bodily integrity.
A private key in the context of Dash is a secret number that allows Dash to be spent. Every Dash wallet contains one or more private keys, which are saved in the wallet file. The private keys are mathematically related to all Dash addresses generated for the wallet.
Because the private key is the "ticket" that allows someone to spend Dash, it is important that these are kept secure.
The private key should be kept secret at all times. (The private key is used to sign messages (in case of Dash - the transactions), and the public key is used to check whether the signature is correct.)
An Anonymous/Private option of sending coins
|Proof of Work - PoW|
A system that ties mining capability to computational power. Blocks must be based by miners, which is in itself an easy computational process, but an additional variable is added to the hashing process to make it more difficult. When a block is successfully hashed, the hashing must have taken some time and computational effort. Thus, a hashed block is considered proof of work.
|Proof of Stake - PoS||Staking - "use the coins you have bought to proof you are part of the network" In a abstract sense masternodes are a proof of stake "light"|
The public key is derived from the private key and so it is related to it. But the public key is not secret and you can reveal it to the world. It is not possible to derive the private key from the public key.
|Pump and Dump||Inflating the value of a financial asset that has been produced or acquired cheaply, using aggressive publicity and often misleading statements. The publicity causes others to acquire the asset, forcing up its value. When the value is high enough, the perpetrator sells their assets, cashing in and flooding the market, which causes the value to crash.|
|QR Code||A two-dimensional graphical block containing a monochromatic pattern representing a sequence of data. QR codes are designed to be scanned by cameras, including those found in mobile phones, and are frequently used to encode Dash addresses.|
The QT Wallet is the 'professional / heavy' Dash Wallet (vs the Electrum which is considered the 'light' wallet).
It contains the full blockchain and is seen as a full Node on the network. When the wallet starts up, it needs time to sync with the blockchain, it has all Dash Features available (PS, IS,...)
The Dash development team created a mechanism by which updated code is released to the network, but not immediately made active (or “enforced”).
Communication sent out to users informing them of the change and the need for them to update their clients. Those who update their clients run the new code, but in the event of errors occurring with that new code, the client’s blocks are not rejected by the network and unintended forks are avoided. Data about the error can then be collected and forwarded to the development team. Once the development team is satisfied with the new code’s stability in the mainnet environment – and once acceptable network consensus is attained – enforcement of the updated code can be activated remotely. Should problems arise, the code can be deactivated in the same manner, without the need for a network-wide rollback or client update.
Taint is a measure of correlation between two (wallet) addresses. The variable expressed as taint is primarily used to express the wallets connections and so the .
It is only of concern if the user is trying to stay (pseudo-) anonymous.
Test Dash , used on Testnet
Testnet is a network only for testing (parallel to the Main Net), Test QT Wallets, Test Coins, Test Masternodes, Test Miners and testers (public) are simulating Mainnet conditions in a safe environment.
An anonymous routing protocol, used by people wanting to hide their identity online.
A collection of transactions on the Dash network, gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
A small fee imposed on some transactions sent across the Dash network. The transaction fee is awarded to the miner that successfully hashes the block containing the relevant transaction.
Transactions that are not yet processed by Miners or held via InstantSend are "unconfirmed on the blockchain"
A Dash address with a desirable pattern, such as a name.
Dash received as a reward for mining a block or running a Masternode. These have not yet been spent anywhere and are "Virgin"
The measurement of price movements over time for a traded financial asset (including Dash).
A method of storing Dash for later use. A wallet holds the private keys associated with Dash addresses. The blockchain is the record of the Dash amounts associated with those addresses.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.
Wikipedia definition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_paper
X11 is a hashing algorithm created by Dash core developer Evan Duffield.
Wikipedia definition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dash_(cryptocurrency)#X11
|Zero Confirmations||Is a transaction without any confirmations from the blockchain. (Double Spending could be possible / if InstantSend was NOT used)|
As a tx (transaction) consist of one or many input and one or many output, then each transaction holds information about these input and output :